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Is the congregational prayer invalid if there is one woman that is in prayer with the congregation that is not wearing her hijab properly such that her hair shows?
In all cases, the prayers of the men in the congregation are unaffected. If the woman did so intentionally, knowing that her hair was showing then those connected to her in the congregation from the women will not be considered to be praying in congregation. However, if she were unaware and her actions were not intentional then the congregational prayer is in order.
I did a prayer, and in the Tasbeeh al arba'a (Subhanallah, alhamdullah etc.) I made a mistake by skipping one of the words, I repeated the tasbeeha which I made an error with. If one makes a mistake in pronouncing, skipping a line or similar will the prayer be in order if one repeats the line or word correctly. If one does Sajdah sahw by saying Takbeerat-ul ihram after niyyah is the sajdah valid? If one, after the tashahud of the sajdah says a complete Salam (Salam to the prophet, Salam to oneself and the pious believers and Salam alaykum) will the sajdah be in order?
Yes, the prayer will be in order. The sajdahtay al-sahw will also be in order.
If one is unable to perform bend to their knees and is unable to perform sujud because of a medical condition of rheumatism or the like, can one pray while sitting on a chair?
It is permissible to sit on a chair and perform sujud on the the turbah that is placed on the table infront of them, if one is unable to sit on the floor.
- medical condition